Lead-acid battery repair skills
Number of views：1998 Time：2018-03-15
Maintaining lead-acid batteries, first, generally, the structure and principle of lead-acid batteries are very necessary. The lead-acid sealed battery consists of a positive, negative electrode plate, a separator, an electrolyte, a battery cell, and a connecting strip (or lead part), a terminal and an exhaust valve.
First, the main components of the battery
1, the plate is the core component of the battery. It is the "heart" of the battery, which is divided into a positive electrode plate and a negative plate.
2, the role of the partition is to isolate the positive, negative electrode plate, prevent short circuit, which can be called "third electrode". As a carrier of the electrolyte, it can absorb a large amount of electrolytic solution, which acts as a good diffusion (ion conductive). For sealing-free maintenance, the separator also produces the "channel" of oxygen to the negative electrode plate as a positive electrode plate to smoothly establish an oxygen circulation and reduce water loss. Ultrafine fiberglass is used, which is a key to the maintenance-free maintenance.
3, the electrolyte is mainly composed of pure water with sulfuric acid, which is mixed with some additives.
Main role: One is to participate in electrochemical reactions, one of the active materials of the battery; the second is to generate electricity, and the transfer of ions in the electrolytic solution during use, which enables the chemical reaction to be carried out smoothly.
4, the safety valve is one of the key components of the battery, located at the top of the battery, there are four effects:
(1) Safety effect, that is, when the gas pressure generated during the battery use reaches the safety valve pressure, the valve is released to prevent the pressure to generate a battery deformation, rupture, and the like.
(2) Sealing action, when the internal pressure of the battery is lower than the shut-up pressure of the safety valve, the safety valve is closed, preventing the internal gas of the inner gas, and also prevents air from entering the battery.
(3) Make sure the battery is in normal internal pressure, which promotes the composite of oxygen in the battery to reduce water.
(4) Explosion-proof effect, some safety valves have anti-acid, anti-riot film. Such as Panasonic Battery.
There is more type of safety valve structure, mainly cap, umbrella, sheet-like, etc. Common is a cap-type raft, which is a capped cap. Simple structure, the use of the fault rate is also low, so widely, such as Panasonic, Haibao, Ultra, Tianneng, Juheng and other battles.
Second, maintenance experience and principle
(1), repair principle:
The repair method has an electronic method, chemical method and physical law. The chemical method is to inject the lead-acid battery with a special electrolyte containing the "active agent" chemical component (generally a translucent liquid) into the lead-acid battery, leaning on the chemical reaction to eliminate the crystallization of sulfate, so that the battery is smooth and regenerated by the aging battery and effective extension. Its service life.
(2) Restoration experience and skills:
1. Charging method: Generally, a light storage battery can be recovered by normal charging. In general, the larger the discharge current, the shorter the life of the battery; the deeper the discharge depth, the shorter the life of the battery. From theoretical battery, try to avoid deep discharge, it should be shallow, but the vulcanized battery is charged or the pulsed charger (for example, the Colin Charger) has a good recovery. The role of capacity.
2, hydrotherapy: "water therapy" is charged and discharged to the "water therapy" to return to normal.
(1) 0.5 ml of 0.5 ml of the 500 ml of drip bottle capacity by the hospital was analyzed by 0.5 ml of pure concentrated sulfuric acid electrolytic solution of about 1.050 as hydrating.
(2) Open the battery on the cover (must be careful to avoid damage), rotate the single-handed control valve (or pick the rubber cover), add 5 ml of the electricity of 1.050 of 1.050 -15 ml, injecting the electrolyte It is preferred to put the battery for more than 10 hours, so that the replenishing liquid is soaked into the separator to just see the flow electrolyte appear (more clearly, more clearly by flashlight) or the battery is flip 90 degrees, so that the small hole As the side, excess electrolyte overflow, and then fell back.
(3) Connect the battery and tester, press the Tester "Battery Repair" function button to repair. The tester automatically enters three six-hour debris repair, automatically transfer to the working mode "3" after three hours, heat-charged - charging, charging current is 3A, the discharge current is 5A, the tester automatically display discharge Capacity and time, very intuitive. Each record is recorded, repeated three, four times until the capacity is no longer rising.
3. Battery parallelism: If the battery temperature rise is rapid during repair, the charging current should be reduced. At this time, the two batteries can be connected in parallel, and the charge and discharge of electric current is original 1/2. 1/2 (Ignore the internal resistance difference), the effect is also very good. (Note: If the battery voltage and capacity gap are large, the battery is used for the diode of greater than 6A current or gives a precharge from the precharge, so as not to cause an impact and effect on another battery.)
4. Battery series repair method: This method is used when a single battery nominal voltage is below 12V. For example, the rechargeable emergency lamp on the market often uses 6V4AH, and there is a 6V7AH battery, and the tester single output is 12V. At this point, two 6V batteries can be connected in series to repair the tester to repair (Note: 1 should select the appropriate charge, discharge stream according to battery nominal capacity; Can).
5. Output joint charge increase method: If the battery capacity is repaired, if some cars are 100AH batteries, sometimes it is necessary to increase the charging current, at which time the two or more outputs of the tester can be repaired in parallel. The battery is enhanced to enhance the charging current.
In the actual test, it was found that according to the battery, with a high-precision 4 or more digital multi-purpose table DC 20A file test, the current of the tester two and connected to the battery was gradually rising to the sum of two currents.
6. Output combination method: This method can be used if the battery, hydrating and charging recovery effect can be used if the battery or self-discharge is severe and severe vulcanization. The method is to use all the way to perform normal charging, and use another "battery repair" function while charging the battery to the battery to apply sulfur, which is the two outputs simultaneously connected to the repair battery (tester two parallel) but choose The mode is full of charging, all the way to sulfur. This method is better for serious vulcanization. When this method is actually used, it is best to charge the current selection to select small, such as 700 mA or 3A, because the stack of repair functions, the repair negative pulse current is greater than the positive pulse, the selection 5A is to make up for the resulting charging current .
7. Output series laundess method: (Note: You must first turn on the tester run mode and start the same function mode, and then connect the battery.) This method is valid for the battery voltage of 24V or 36V or the unit of battery, After the two or multiplexed outputs of the tester are connected in series, the two series voltages are 24V, and the three is 36V. However, the actual test has found that the voltage is raised in the same, but the current is still the selected current size, such as two-way three amps current charging mode, the voltage obtained after series is 24V output, but the current does not increase. It should be noted that the samples of the tester should be the same, and must be started at the same time. If the series three is 36V, the charging current should choose the same size and start.
8. Heating method: The battery is too long, the electrolyte is severely dried, and it does not want to stand for 24 hours after hydrating, and the customer needs to repair this method. After being repaired by the battery, in order to accelerate the electrolyte to the battery inside (separator - using ultrafine fiberglass as the vector of the electrolyte, it can absorb a large amount of electrolyte) and its own chemical reaction, put the battery after hydrating 70 degrees. Soak in the left and right hot water (note: Do not immerse the battery to prevent short circuits) for more than 1 hour. Thereafter, the battery is taken out from hot water to perform normal repair work.
9. Output triggering method: The mainland pigeon tester has a self-diagnosis detection of battery. Under normal circumstances, when the repaired battery is connected to the tester, he should hear the slight "" sound, indicating the internal relay of the tester. If the battery voltage is too low, although the access repair instrument is connected, the operation is started, and the red digital tube on the panel is normal. If the digital display of charge and discharge is alternately flicker, there is no corresponding current and voltage output under the test function of the tester self-protection. In this case, the positive and negative electrode output line can be quickly connected to the trigger battery after the voltage is higher than 6V (good battery). A easier method is to prepare a 9V stacking battery (the battery commonly used in the multimeter, which is easy to purchase) to trigger the tester output. The positive and negative terminals output by the tester are simultaneously in contact with the 9V laminate battery.
10. Cooling method: When charging and repair, the temperature of the battery housing is often checked, and the overall temperature exceeds 40 degrees (touching it with hand, it must be checked whether the charging voltage and the current are too high (mainland pigeon tester Voltage, current is very accurate) If normal, it must be given to cool down cooling. (1) Fan blowing cooling; (2) immerse battery 2/3 to cool down, without interrupt repair work (such as charge and discharge, sulfur, etc.); (3) Reduce charging current (such as parallel battery shunt), long charging time Wait.
11. Activated charging method: The battery can be activated regularly during storage or use, which is even more advantageous for preventing battery-free sulfate from preventing battery life. It is worthy of advocacy. The mainland pigeon battery capacity tester is three-way independent 12V circuit (36V) and four 12V independent circuits (48V type), and the output current and voltage are controlled by microcomputer, so that the output current is very accurate and can be used as a balanced charger. Because the equalization of the series battery pack is generally existing, there will always be "backward" batteries during use. Under normal circumstances, the tester is used to charge the battery on the battery - the charging process can reach the equilibrium charging.
12, depth discharge and overcharge repair method: (Note: Suitable for the voltage drop tester version).
In the repair practice, some batteries are found to be "tuttically\\ The taught of such batteries can take a method of depth discharge and overcharge repair. However, the depth discharge does not mean simple deep discharge, but the potential function of the tester will continue to perform the demeanification of the sulfur after the battery is discharged, so that the depth of debris is given to the battery while the battery voltage continues to fall. (When using the tester to run the repair function, the battery voltage is naturally lowered) at least below 9.5 V. It is best to have more effects below 7.5V. Then charge to 16.2V (note: You must manually open or unplug the battery to prevent the battery overcharge to cause the housing deformation).
13, small current charge repair method: The charge current selection L is charged by the charge current selection L using the tester with a tester, or the default function mode 3 is charged for up to 18 hours, or after hydrating. This method also has a good effect on battery-placing time and aging, severe vulcanized batteries.
14. Judging whether there is an open circuit in the inside of the battery with the tester. When there is an opening in the inside of the battery (mostly the leakage night causes the inside of the battery and the wiring column connection portion corrosion), the relay inside the tester will issue a "beep" when discharging the battery is discharged with the tester. In this case, you must immediately turn off the tester or disconnect the battery and the tester to avoid damage to the equipment.
15. Relieve battery self-discharge and backward batteries with testers. After the battery is filled with a conventional method, then charge again, and the tester is used to charge 1 hour, if the charging time is more than 1 hour, and the longer battery self-discharge, the more severe the battery backward.
Third, the precautions during the repair process
1, at any time to monitor each battery voltage, battery heat, if some hole overflow electrolyte is allowed to use a syringe to use a syringe to prevent battery short circuit, and the aperture of the electrolytic gas and the overflow electrolyte, do not add an electrolyte Timely fluid with distilled water. Because individual holes are severely possible, it is possible that the battery is short-circuited, the internal resistance or the specific gravity of the electrolytic solution is caused, and the proportion of electrolyte is higher here. Therefore, it is best to stay with distilled water baked without cited concentrated sulfuric acid before repair. Moreover, the heat-free battery is manually selected 3A current charging or battery in parallel, or with water-free method, fan blowing, etc. to reduce charging current and temperature rise, because automatic repair function is automatically charged, if it is charged, if repair is not The small capacity battery for electric vehicles can easily cause heat and electrolyte overflow. Note: The appropriate charge and discharge current should be selected according to the battery nominal capacity.
2. During the repair process, if there is a case, the battery cannot be used again:
(1) To check the temperature of the battery housing (can be touched by hand), if there is a local temperature above other parts temperature, or a certain electrolyte boiling, the gas is serious (even if it is day, the fever is serious The hole hand can see the white gas, this method is very popular), indicating that the end-circuit phenomenon is short-circuited.
(2) Long-term charge is not charged (the voltage does not rise), the continuous charging time continuous charging time has not been displayed for more than 10 hours, or the battery is severe, or the battery is short-circuited inside the battery, or It is caused by a polar plane. The tester must be disconnected. Check the voltage and the battery in which the charge is too low, or the charge is too low (no electricity) cannot be used, or a more lasting repair time.
(3) After the test instrument is connected to the battery start the machine, if the tester cannot output normal voltage and current and "吱 ... 嗒" and other sounds, it means that the internal circuit of the battery has caused the tester to output it normally. The battery should be removed to avoid damage to the tester.
(4) The performance of the battery life is: 1. The actual capacity of the battery drops below 60%; 2. When charging is charged; 3. Fast charging (charging time is shortened) and discharge fast (self-discharge is serious) 4.. Various performance is greatly reduced, and the performance is extremely unstable. It is possible to cause adverse consequences: such as the transforming of the rechargeable battery shell, generate short circuit, broken circuit, and even explosion hazards, more serious is long-term charging and charger does not turn Lights, causing the charger to burn into other fires. It should be paid attention to.